Rewriting history

Source code management


Source code management (SCM) is used to track modifications to a source code repository. SCM tracks a running history of changes to a code base and helps resolve conflicts when merging updates from multiple contributors. SCM is also synonymous with Version control. 

As software projects grow in lines of code and contributor head count, the costs of communication overhead and management complexity also grow. SCM is a critical tool to alleviate the organizational strain of growing development costs.


This tutorial will cover various methods of rewriting and altering Git history. Git uses a few different methods to record changes. We will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods and give examples of how to work with them. This tutorial discusses some of the most common reasons for overwriting committed snapshots and shows you how to avoid the pitfalls of doing so.

Git's main job is to make sure you never lose a committed change. But it's also designed to give you total control over your development workflow. This includes letting you define exactly what your project history looks like; however, it also creates the potential of losing commits. Git provides its history-rewriting commands under the disclaimer that using them may result in lost content.

Git has several mechanisms for storing history and saving changes. These mechanisms include: Commit --amend, git rebase and git reflog. These options give you powerful work flow customization options. By the end of this tutorial, you'll be familiar with commands that will let you restructure your Git commits, and be able to avoid pitfalls that are commonly encountered when rewriting history.

This foundational conflict prevention mechanism has the side effect of providing passive communication for the development team. The team can then monitor and discuss the work in progress that the SCM is monitoring. The SCM tracks an entire history of changes to the code base. This allows developers to examine and review edits that may have introduced bugs or regressions.


Amended commits are actually entirely new commits and the previous commit will no longer be on your current branch. This has the same consequences as resetting a public snapshot. Avoid amending a commit that other developers have based their work on. This is a confusing situation for developers to be in and it’s complicated to recover from.

To modify older or multiple commits, you can use git rebase to combine a sequence of commits into a new base commit. In standard mode, git rebase allows you to literally rewrite history — automatically applying commits in your current working branch to the passed branch head. Since your new commits will be replacing the old, it's important to not use git rebase on commits that have been pushed public, or it will appear that your project history disappeared.

During a rebase, the edit or e command will pause the rebase playback on that commit and allow you to make additional changes with git commit --amend Git will interrupt the playback and present a message:


squash コミットで履歴をクリーンにする

Note that the commits modified with a rebase command have a different ID than either of the original commits. Commits marked with pick will have a new ID if the previous commits have been rewritten.


Git rebase gives you the power to modify your history, and interactive rebasing allows you to do so without leaving a “messy” trail. This creates the freedom to make and correct errors and refine your work, while still maintaining a clean, linear project history.

セーフティ ネット: git reflog

Reference logs, or "reflogs" are a mechanism Git uses to record updates applied to tips of branches and other commit references. Reflog allows you to go back to commits even though they are not referenced by any branch or tag. After rewriting history, the reflog contains information about the old state of branches and allows you to go back to that state if necessary. Every time your branch tip is updated for any reason (by switching branches, pulling in new changes, rewriting history or simply by adding new commits), a new entry will be added to the reflog. In this section we will take a high level look at the git reflog command and explore some common uses.


This displays the reflog for the local repository.

To understand git reflog, let's run through an example.

Agree on a Workflow

By default SCMs offer very free form methods of contribution. It is important that teams establish shared patterns of collaboration. SCM workflows establish patterns and processes for merging branches. If a team doesn't agree on a shared workflow it can lead to inefficient communication overhead when it comes time to merge branches.


In this article we discussed several methods of changing git history, and undoing git changes. We took a high level look at the git rebase process. Some Key takeaways are:

  • There are many ways to rewrite history with git.
  • Use git commit --amend to change your latest log message.
  • Use git commit --amend to make modifications to the most recent commit.
  • Use git rebase to combine commits and modify history of a branch.
  • git rebase -i gives much more fine grained control over history modifications than a standard git rebase.